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The regulation of light on plant growth and development includes seed germination, stem elongation, leaf and root development, phototropism, chlorophyll synthesis and decomposition, and flower induction. The lighting environment features in the facility include light intensity, photoperiod, and spectral distribution. The LED grow light can be used to adjust these features without being restricted by weather conditions.
Plants selective absorption of light, and perceived light signals by different photoreceptors. At least three types of photoreceptors, Photosensitive element (absorbing red and far-red light), cryptochrome (absorbing blue light and near-ultraviolet light), and ultraviolet light receptors (UV-A and UV-B) have been found in plants. Using a specific wavelength light source to illuminate the crop can increase the photosynthesis efficiency and accelerate the formation of the light form, thereby promoting the growth and development of the plant.
Plant photosynthesis mainly uses red-orange light (610-720nm) and blue-violet light (400-510nm). Using LED technology, it is possible to radiate monochromatic light (such as red light with a peak of 660nm and blue light with a peak of 450nm) in accordance with the wavelength band of the strongest absorption region of chlorophyll, and the spectral domain width is the only ±20nm. At present, it is believed that red-orange light will promote the development of plants, the accumulation of dry matter, the formation of organs, and causing early flowering and fruiting. Blue-violet light can control the phototropism of leaf, promote stomatal opening and chloroplast movement, inhibit stem elongation, prevent plant excessive growth, delay flowering and promote vegetative organs growth. The combination of red and blue LED grow lights can make up for the lack of monochromatic light, and form a spectral absorption peak which is basically consistent with crop photosynthesis and morphogenesis. The utilization rate of light energy can reach 80% to 90%, and the energy-saving effect is remarkable.
The installation of LED plant grow lights in the facility gardening can achieve a very significant increase in production. Through controlling the LED light quality, intensity, and illumination time in the whole growth period, to shorten the growth cycle, improve the yield, nutritional quality and form value of agricultural products, and achieve high efficiency, energy saving and intelligent production of facility horticultural crops.
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