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A small SMD LED can be generally separated into six major parts, that is, LED support, chip attach material, LED chip, bond wire, epoxy resin, and phosphor.
1. LED support:
LED support, also called LED stent and LED bracket, is mostly made by the electroplating process and used for conduct electricity and support LED chips. At present, the LED lights manufacturers mainly used cup-shaped brackets and flat brackets, which are applied for concentrated-light LEDs and wide-angle LEDs respectively.
2. Chip attach material:
The most common material is the silver glue that used to immobilize the chip and conduct electricity. The main ingredients of silver glue are 75 to 80 percent silver powder, 10 to 15 percent Epoxy and 5 to 10 percent additives.
3. LED Chip:
The LED chip is a light emitting diode, generally is made of GaP, GaAlAs, GaAs, GaN, etc., and has unidirectional conductivity. There is no white light LED chip, so the white light LED lighting can only be obtained by mixing different color light.
4. Bond wire:
The bond wire is a metal wire used to connect the wafer pad and the LED support so that complete the inner circuit of LED beads. In actual production, gold wires and silver alloy wires are generally used, but copper wires are still used at the low-end products to reduce the cost.
5. Epoxy resin:
The role of the epoxy resin is to protect and fix the internal structure of the LED, but it also slightly change the color, brightness, and beam angle.
As the mentioned above, all the white-light LED light strips, LED bulbs, LED spotlights and other white-light LED fixtures are produced of phosphor conversion LEDs, that is, the blue light from the chip is changed into white light by the phosphor. Compare with the RGB white light, the phosphor conversion LED has a simpler circuit, lower production cost, and less heat production. That is why it is dominant in the current LED product market.
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