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Cooling efficiency is the main factor affecting the illumination intensity and service life of LED lights. To enhance the heat dissipation of LED lighting, LED lights manufacturers and related research institutes have been working to improve the thermal dissipation technology and high heat-conducting materials.
According to the heat dissipation method, the radiator can be divided into the active radiator and the passive radiator. Passive heat dissipation means that the heat of the LED light source is naturally radiated into the air through the heatsink, therefore the size of the heatsink directly determines the cooling effect. For this reason, it generally is used in LED lights of relatively low power or small volume. For example, the rigid PCB of the LED hard strip lights is equivalent to a passive heatsink, and for this reason, its cooling effect is better than flexible LED light strips that without the metal heatsink. As opposed to passive cooling, active cooling means that the heat produced by the LED light source will be forcibly taken away by the cooling device. High power LED lights such as the LED grow light generally adopts active heat dissipation, and the most common active radiator is the fan, which is characterized by high cooling efficiency and the small volume.
The above form identified that silver and copper have the best thermal conductivity, followed by gold and aluminum. In actual production, since gold and silver are too expensive, the aluminum and copper are the most-used materials of the heatsink. Both copper and aluminum alloy have their own advantages and disadvantages. Copper has better thermal conductivity than aluminum, but its cost is more expensive, the processing is more complicated, and the finished product has a small heat capacity and is easily oxidized. For manufacturing, pure aluminum is not hard enough to be processed directly. Therefore, the aluminum in the LED lighting industry is actually the aluminum alloy with sufficient hardness. The aluminum alloy has advantages in economic efficiency and lightweight design, but the thermal conductivity is not as good as copper. Without doubt, there are other heat conduction materials, such as fiberglass, ceramics, etc., which also have a place in the market.
The LED lighting industry has extremely strict requirements on the alignment accuracy of the substrate that required to have characteristics such as high heat dissipation, small size, and good adhesion of metal lines. To improve LED luminous efficiency and lifespan, solving the heat dissipation problem of LED products is one of the most important issues at this stage.
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