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The proteins, sugars, organic acids and vitamins contained in fruits and vegetables are nutrients beneficial to human health. Light quality of LED plant grow lights can affect the content of VC in plants by regulating the activity of VC synthesis and decomposing enzymes, as well as adjust the protein metabolism and carbohydrate accumulation in horticultural plants. Red light promotes the accumulation of carbohydrates, and blue light is beneficial to protein formation, while the combination of red and blue light has a significantly higher effect on the nutritional quality of plants than monochromatic light. For lettuce, supplementing LED red or blue light can reduce the nitrate content, using blue or green light can promote the amass of soluble sugar, and replenishing infrared light is beneficial to the accumulation of VC. From the view of tomato planting, supplementation of blue light can increase the VC content and soluble protein content. The red light and red-blue combined light can advance the amount of sugar and acid, and hit the ceiling under red-blue light. Moreover, red-blue light can increase the VC content in cucumber.
The phenolic substances, flavonoids, anthocyanins and other substances contained in fruits and vegetables not only have an important influence on the color, flavor and commercial value of fruits and vegetables but also have natural antioxidant activity, which can effectively inhibit or eliminate free radicals in human body. The use of LED grow lights with blue light can significantly increase the anthocyanin value of eggplant by 73.6%, while the use of LED red light, red-blue combined light can improve flavonoids and total phenolic content. Blue light can increase the amount of lycopene, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in tomato fruits. The combination of red and blue light promotes the formation of anthocyanins to some extent but inhibits the synthesis of flavonoids. Compared with white light LED plant lights, red light treatment can greatly increase the anthocyanin content in the upper part of lettuce, however, the blue treated lettuce has the lowest anthocyanin content. The total phenolic content of green leaf, purple leaf, and red leaf lettuce had larger values under white light, red-blue combined light and blue light, but the lowest value under red light. Supplementing LED UV or orange light can increase the content of phenolic compounds in lettuce leaves while supplying green light can enhance anthocyanin content.
According to the above, it can be concluded that the application of proper LED plant grow lights is an effective way to improve the nutritional quality of facilities fruits and vegetables.
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